Prenyl transfer to aromatic substrates in the biosynthesis of aminocoumarins, meroterpenoids and phenazines: the ABBA prenyltransferase family
Aromatic prenyltransferases transfer prenyl moieties onto aromatic acceptor molecules, catalyzing an electrophilic substitution of the aromatic ring under formation of carbon-carbon bonds. They give rise to an astounding diversity of primary and secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. This review describes a recently discovered family of aromatic prenyltransferases. The structure of these enyzmes shows a type of beta/alpha fold with antiparallel beta strands. Due to the alpha-beta-beta-alpha architecture of this fold, this group of enzymes was designated as ABBA prenyltransferases. They lack the (N/D)DxxD motif which is characteristic for many other prenyltransferases. At present, 14 genes with sequence similarity to ABBA prenyltransferases can be identified in the database. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes separates them into two clades. One of them comprises the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 3-dimethylallyltransferases CloQ and NovQ involved in aminocoumarin antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces strains, as well as four genes of unknown function from fungal genomes. The other clade comprises genes involved in the biosynthesis of prenylated naphthoquinones and prenylated phenazines in different streptomycetes. ABBA prenyltransferases are soluble biocatalysts which can easily be obtained as homogeneous proteins in significant amounts. Their substrates are accommodated in a surprisingly spacious central cavity which explains their promiscuity for different aromatic substrates. Therefore, the enzymes of this family represent attractive tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioactive molecules.
Orwah Saleh, Yvonne Haagen, Kerstin Seeger, Lutz Heide
2009, 70, 1728